Engineering Trends

Delivering first-class information, our exclusive journals and conference papers highlight the cutting-edge developments in engineering research and development. Supplied by leading practitioners across a range of disciplines, these papers address the key advancements, explorations, and challenges faced by the profession.

Covering a range of topics and disciplines, the highlighted papers will provide great benefit and value for the profession.

Technical papers

Transforming the Desorption Unit in Carbon Capture Technology through a Novel Solar-Driven Process

This study develops a CFD model for a single So-St segment; the first of its kind. The design is investigated in terms of boiling flow, multi-phase evolution, fluid regimes, heat transfer, reaction kinetics and thermodynamics.

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Sydney Water’s Innovations to Improve Odour Control Unit Performance in Wastewater Networks

Comprehensive design standards ensure new Odour Control Units meet all necessary safety, operational and maintenance requirements, and ensure consistency, while still enabling innovation.

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Bulk Solids Handling-A Chemical Engineer’s Perspective

What is the biggest industrial activity on the planet that can quickly and efficiently destroy material value, careers, projects and even organisations?

Answer. Bulk Solids Handling (BSH)

Material flow through a chain governs its commercial success and given over 70% of everything we use or consume passed through a bulk phase at some point in its lifecycle, bulk solids flow is very relevant.

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Sydney Water’s innovative approach for optimising chemical dosing into sewer networks

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas generated in wastewater networks presents a complex management issue worldwide. Corrosion of concrete and metallic sewer assets result in expensive rehabilitation cost, while customer odour complaints and worker health and safety are also major issues. This research aims to reduce concrete corrosion by minimising the generation and release of H2S with smarter network operation and design.

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Municipal solid waste leachate treatment using ultrasonication microwave & Ozonation combined Fenton process (AJCE) – Civil

This work focuses on the effect of Microwave power, Ozonation and Fenton reagent in microwave coupling Ozonation and Fenton oxidation process for the disintegration of COD of leachate. The experiment revealed the combined process of M+ O3+ Fe induces to the disintegration of COD in Leachate with a shorter reaction period. 

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Front-end construction waste minimization Strategies (AJCE) - Civil 

The paper observes that the historically rapid increase in construction waste will be exacerbated by the very real increasing risk of waste due to recovery from disaster damage (bush fire, flood and storm surge coupled with climate change). Increasingly intelligent front-end strategies that minimize waste have therefore become a high priority for action.

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Front-end construction waste minimization Strategies (AJCE) - Civil 

The paper observes that the historically rapid increase in construction waste will be exacerbated by the very real increasing risk of waste due to recovery from disaster damage (bush fire, flood and storm surge coupled with climate change). Increasingly intelligent front-end strategies that minimize waste have therefore become a high priority for action. 

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Effect of motorcycle on the critical gap at priority junctions (AJCE)

This study was conducted to estimate and compare the value of critical gap using the equilibrium method, maximum likelihood method and Malaysia Highway Capacity Manual, conditioned with and without presence of the motorcycles. 

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Developing a nature-based coastal defence strategy for Australia

Australia’s rapid coastal population growth coupled with the increased risk of hazards driven by climate change creates an urgent need to start adaptation planning for the future.

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Safeswim – Live Information System for Water Quality and Swimming Conditions at Bathing Beaches

Safeswim provides real-time predictions and forecasts of water quality, and up-to-the-minute advice on swimming conditions at over 100 sites around the Auckland region.

This paper focuses on public health risk from contact with recreational waters, and how Safeswim was developed to manage this risk, based on the current New Zealand national guidelines for contact recreation.

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Towards an Infragravity Wave Climate for New South Wales

Infragravity (IG) waves may cause dangerous ranging of moored ships having resonant natural frequencies of oscillation, which can be exacerbated in harbour basins having resonant IG length scales. This paper presents a methodology for and the results from developing, theoretically and empirically, an IG wave climate for the NSW coast based on field data.

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Variable Channel Design for Ports and Harbours in Macro Tidal Environments

The width and depth of a navigational channel are critical to ensure navigational safety. This paper presents a variable channel design approach, whereby the channel dimensions are assessed at several locations along the channel length/transit and at several intervals in a tidal cycle. This approach allows for the channel dimensions to be optimized, reducing the dredging volume, cost and environmental impact.

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Holistic approach to Human Comfort

The consideration for human comfort in the urban plane has largely been focused on the wind speed that a pedestrian might experience due to the surrounding built form design, prevailing winds and site exposure. However, human comfort is not only affected by the experienced wind force, but also temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, clothing and other parameters.

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Localised failure mechanism of concrete pedestals under bridge bearing (AJCE)

With a view to understand the structural responses of concrete pedestals, a three-dimensional nonlinear explicit finite element modelling method has been developed and reported in this paper.

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Review and evaluation of methods for estimating delay at priority junctions (AJCE)

The Level of Service for a priority junction is identified by the delay calculated for each movement. Due to complexity of the traffic operations, various methods developed over past 55 years from Tanner’s method until now, have been studied to evaluate more precise delay. 

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Architectural choices for cyber resilience

This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of a bespoke or open architecture and highlights the impact of each approach on mission-critical platforms. The resulting recommendations focus on using a project’s projected lifecycle to indicate the most suited architecture and therefore leverage the relative benefits of each methodology.

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Smart railways... or not so smart: A cyber security perspective (conference paper from CORE 2018)

Welcome to a world where smart railways are here and now. Real-time monitoring, embedded sensors, driverless trains, automated signalling and train control, Internet of Things (IoT), instant travel disruption alerts, and more. Operators not only need to continue to focus on operating railways, but now must monitor and protect all this connected infrastructure from a cyber-attack. The more connections, the more cyber threat attack vectors, the more potential for exploitable vulnerabilities, the more risk of a cyber-attack occurring.

The aim of this paper is to shallow dive into information and cyber security for rail networks and operations, providing advice into protecting a rail network's infrastructure from cyber security threats, to the same high level expected by all involved.

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Ratcatchers, regulators, and zealots - a hitchhiker's guide to cyber T and E

This paper considers the current emphasis on Assurance and Accreditation (A and A) representing a significant philosophical change from standards-driven outcomes, to outcomes reflecting the values and trusts contained within regulatory frameworks. It uses this to examine the different characteristics Cyber T and E operators are likely to be defined by, and sometimes termed.

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A survey of leakage reduction techniques in CMOS digital circuits for nanoscale regime (AJEEE) – Electrical & Electronics 

In this review paper, a systematic flow of the low power VLSI field is explored with the target of the different existing circuit level leakage reduction techniques. NAND3 gate is designed and simulated at 16 nm technology node by using the different existing leakage reduction techniques for the comparison purpose

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Modelling and identification of switched reluctance machine inductance (AJEEE) – Electrical & Electronics 

Identification of phase self-inductance is a central step in control and development of Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) model because the voltage and torque equation are functions of the phase self-inductance. The results of this analytical approach are compared with those obtained using magnetostatic finite element method and experimental measurement. The comparison results show good accuracy of the identified model. 

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Optimal reactive power dispatch using backtracking search algorithm (AJEEE) 

In this paper, as a new approach, backtracking search algorithm (BSA) is applied to solve the ORPD problem to minimise the power losses and/or improve the voltage profile under control and dependent variable constraints.  

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Impact of Propulsion Technology Levels on the Sizing and Energy Consumption for Serial Hybrid-Electric General Aviation Aircraft

Serial hybrid-electric propulsion systems combine the advantages of combustion engines and electric motors. In this paper, the key technology parameters of general aviation aircraft with such powertrains are analysed concerning their influence on maximum take-off mass and primary energy consumption.

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Impact of the configuration and condition of the power system on the damping of low-frequency oscillations (AJEEE)

In this paper, simulation and analysis was done by using of two-area electric power systems and using «EUROSTAG» software. The factors, such as the previous steady-state condition and the structure of the electric power system, affecting the damping properties of electric power system and the impact of the Back-to-Back High-Voltage Direct Current link based on voltage source converters to the damping of low-frequency oscillations were considered.

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A generalised antenna correlation model for accurate performance evaluation of 2D massive MIMO communication systems (AJEEE)

In this paper, a realistic and generalised correlation matrix (GCM) model is developed for the accurate performance evaluation of two-dimensional (2D) massive MIMO systems.

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Using case studies in engineering ethics education: the case for immersive scenarios through stakeholder engagement and real life data 

The paper is a qualitative examination of the use of case studies in engineering ethics education and includes 23 engineering programmes from 6 higher education institutions in Ireland. A first finding documents the diverse set of goals and application of ethics case studies. The second finding highlights the discrepancy between how instructors employ cases and their preferred application.  

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Development of a taxonomy of keywords for engineering education research (AJEE) – Engineering Education

The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. This report describes the process for developing EER Taxonomy. It also helps authors consistently assign keywords for their articles by encouraging them to choose terms from three categories: (1) context/focus/topic, (2) purpose/target/motivation, and (3) research approach. 

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Reskilling the manufacturing workforce and developing capabilities for the future (AJEE) 

With a focus on Tasmania, this paper identified the mismatch between current skills and future needs from a literature review, and through semi-structured interviews with companies, qualitative data on future skills were determined.  
 

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STEAM without hot air: strategy for educating creative engineers

At a time when the routine tasks traditionally carried out by engineers are being undertaken by either technicians or technologists with access to powerful IT systems or AI with machine learning algorithms, there is an urgent need to reframe the education of engineering students beyond rote learning. This involves providing a learning framework to support creative problem-solving as specified by many of the Graduate Attributes required by the Washington Accord for accreditation of tertiary engineering degrees.

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Humanitarian engineering education fieldwork and the risk of doing more harm than good

This paper explores the concept of voluntourism and the need for holistic and sustainable solutions for universities to produce culturally, socially and emotionally intelligent engineers with a strong depth of technical knowledge. The paper provides case studies of different programs, highlighting different methods of service-learning and community empowerment. The paper provides a framework to assess program suitability to produce holistic 21st century engineering graduates.

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Perceptions of the relative importance of student interactions for the attainment of engineering laboratory-learning outcomes

This paper sets out to understand how students’ interactions in the laboratory contribute to the attainment of laboratory-learning outcomes. The investigation was conducted in the traditional face-to-face laboratory mode.

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Right Way, Wrong Way, Better Way – Modelling cultural sensitivity to engineering graduates 

The aim of this paper is to present an Engineers perspective of the implementation of Education methods, the Author was involved in, including Student project work, educational videos and STEM Student presentations, whilst examining qualitative changes in student perceptions of working with Aboriginal Australians.

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Training responsible engineers. Phronesis and the role of virtues in teaching engineering ethics (AJEE)

This paper presents a type of virtue engineering ethics that bridges the gap between academic knowledge (in both ethics and engineering) and its application in engineering practice (particularly design). 

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A qualitative study of how mental models impact engineering students’ engagement with empathic communication exercises (AJEE)

This study investigated two research questions: what mental models about engineering and engineering relationships do students bring with them into engineering classrooms and, how do these mental models impact students’ engagement with and understanding of empathic communication exercises.

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Cape Leeuwin lighthouse – a guiding light in the west for east coast shipping

The lighthouse, completed in 1896, was a particularly important link in the development of coastal lights that eventually circled mainland Australia. This paper outlines several technical innovations needed to achieve this at the time.

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Water turbines of the woods point goldfield 1866-1867

Water turbine technology was still relatively young when it was first introduced to the predominantly dry continent of Australia. This paper outlines the technology up until its introduction at Woods Point and discusses the early history of that goldfield and initial choices of power technology.

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Locking the Murray: the heritage of engineering process

This paper provides a broad approach to the heritage of the River Murray works, covering the remarkable set of maps and field books, the photographic record held by SA Water, the construction villages, and some surviving physical items relating to the construction phase.

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Influence of Australian Research on Conveyor Technology

Research on belt conveyors in Australia is reviewed in an historical context and discusses some of the early technical milestones that advanced the conveying and bulk handling industry.

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Object-Oriented Systems Engineering for Infrastructure Projects

The paper reviews the key advantages of object-oriented techniques as applied to infrastructure projects, such as abstraction, inheritance, encapsulation and model reuse.

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Enhancing Engineering Business through Benchmarking

The purpose of this paper is to explore a system for benchmarking a group of aspects relevant to complex projects, pursued both as systems engineering and construction projects, relevant to engineering business.

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Managing complex systems and projects

The purpose of the paper is to identify a group of systems and parameters relevant to the management of both complex construction projects and systems engineering projects, recognising scenario planning, fractals, megaprojects, double loop learning, soft-systems methodology, and other factors illustrating the use of these complex system parameters.

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Artificial Intelligence, the Emerging Needs for Human Factors Engineering, Risk Management and Stakeholder Engagement 

Professional people will need to be trained in fundamental calculations and principles in new ways to manage risks in their professions going forward. These people will need to use their depth of skills, in conjunction with likely new findings of AI to achieve new performance measures previously unattainable. Professional training in the development and separately in the operation of AI are whole new areas of risk management measure.

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A new approach to explore tool chatter in turning operation on lathe (AJME) - Mechanical 

Tool chatter is an ineluctable phenomenon encountered frequently in turning process. In the present work, statistical approach along with signal pre-processing has been adopted to explore the mechanism of tool chatter in turning operation.  

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Numerical and experimental investigation of a fixed bed latent heat storage system during charging processes (AJME) 


In this study, the experimental model is tested to use for analysing the thermal performance of packed bed-PCM latent. The effects of mass flow rate and inlet heat transfer fluid temperature are investigated on the time duration for solidification.  

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Hydrodynamic journal bearing with slippage sleeve surface (AJME) 

The analytical results show that the interfacial slippage on the whole sleeve surface considerably reduces the load-carrying capacity of the bearing, but also considerably reduces the friction coefficient of the bearing as compared to the results of the conventional hydrodynamic journal bearing (without the interfacial slippage) for the same operating condition.  

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Stress Wave Force Balance Sting Design for Magnetohydrodynamic Drag Force Measurements in Expansion Tubes

This paper discusses the existence of noise observed in measurements taken using a stress wave force balance for magnetohydrodynamic drag measurements in an ionised argon expansion tube test flow.

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Mechanical properties of multifunctional sandwich composites with embedded lithium-ion polymer batteries

Multifunctional composites that combine high load-bearing properties with high electrical energy storage capacity have potential application in next-generation hybrid and electric vehicles. The effect of high structural bending loads on the flexural properties and electrical energy storage capacity of sandwich composites containing lithium-ion polymer (LiPo) batteries embedded within the polymer foam core is explored in this paper.

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Insights into granular mechanics through neutron scattering

Neutron scattering techniques have provided a window into the structure and mechanics of solid materials for many decades. This study has demonstrated that these techniques can also provide tremendous insight into granular systems by means of crystallographic texture measurement and the use of neutron diffraction strain measurement techniques.

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Investigation on influence of blending Jatropha biofuel with diesel to improve fuel quality (AJME)

The current research is done with a view to study the influence of blending the biofuel obtained from Jatropha plant and commercial diesel on efficiency of the fuel in terms of specific fuel consumption, emission content. The results showed that blending of biofuel from Jatropha and commercial diesel improves the fuel properties.

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A comparative analysis of thermo-hydraulic performance of a roughened solar air heater using various rib shapes (AJME)

Based on the experimental results correlations for the Nusselt number and friction factor are derived. A mathematical model has been developed to investigate the effect of geometrical and operating parameters on the thermal and effective efficiency of a roughened S.A.H.

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Influence of simultaneous optimisation to enhance the stress-based fatigue life of bellows joint (AJME)

Motion compensators, or bellows, used in process equipment pipe connections must be able to achieve maximum expansion-contraction cycle life with low stress levels. Current research is focused on optimising stress-based fatigue life and predicting cycles for a variety of bellows configurations. This study enables the suitability of the PCA-GRG technique for realising complicated relationships between discrete design factors and responses at multiple levels.

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Hydrogen energy supply to remote communities in Australia’s Northern Territory: a feasibility study (AJMDE).

Options for hydrogen supply in NT remote areas are economically evaluated and their feasibility is discussed. While current capital expenditure limits pose the main barrier to hydrogen supply in remote areas of the NT, it was found promising in terms of environmental effects, long-term economic return, reliability of energy supply, and community empowerment.

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Study on prediction of experimental machining response data using artificial neural network (AJMDE) 

The drilling is one of the most rigorous machining processes in the case of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials due to its promoting characteristic by which components can be assembled easily. The present empirical study deals with twisting force/torque attribute obtained based on Taguchi’s Design of Experiments (DOE) leading to an influence of the machining parameters while drilling hybrid composite laminate and the same was validated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Back Propagation algorithm approach on training/testing experimental data-set.  

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The future of the ageing workforce in engineering: relics or resources?

Retaining older workers in productive employment is forecast to be a major issue as rapid changes, such as digitalisation and artificial intelligence, will transform how many roles are performed. Two such issues faced by older workers are normal age-related cognitive decline that affects reasoning and problem solving, and workplace stereotyping based on their age. 

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The Future of Risk Identification in a Rapidly Changing Sociotechnical Work Environment 

Contemporary research indicates increasing rapid and significant changes impacting sociotechnical work systems will require different approaches to effectively manage risks. Future research activities, research contexts and research personnel may be quite different from past and current practices. How people interact with technology and their work environments will change rapidly and it will be essential to have risk management approaches that can effectively adapt to address future risks.

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Towards the integration of organisational culture models into model-based systems engineering approaches for enterprise systems transformation (AJMDE)

This paper describes a Model-Based Systems Engineering approach to the development of organisational culture models and demonstrates how changes made to the integrated enterprise model may yield insight into how organisational culture will need to evolve as enterprise systems transform.

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Advances in systems of systems engineering foundations and methodologies (AJMDE)

The paper shows that many significant gaps identified within the baseline have been addressed. Considerable advances to the underpinning framework of ideas include: application of systems philosophy to support enhanced reasoning about SoSE as a discipline, improved structuring of SoSE principles and classification, and standardisation of SoSE terminology.

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Nuclear propulsion roadmap for Australia(r) – a systems engineering approach (AJMDE)

This paper describes the development of an Australian roadmap for the acquisition of nuclear propulsion for submarines and selected other vessels and reports on the goals of the working group and an outline of the projected roadmap.

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New analytical method for computing moment redistribution in RC beams under concentrated load (AJSE) - Structural 

This paper suggests a mathematical model to investigate the moment redistribution in RC beams after yielding analytically. The analytical results indicate that the proposed mathematical model can be used for analysis of moment redistribution of RC beams.  

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Design of cantilever retaining walls for minimum tilting tendency (AJSE) 

This paper demonstrates that there are generally two (alternative) positions for the stem on the base for which there will be no tendency for the wall to tilt either forwards or backwards under the action of given loadings and develops a direct approach for the determination of these positions with a view to minimising the ultimate tilting tendency of the wall. 

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Collapse probability of soft-storey building in Australia and implications for risk-based seismic design

This study features the rocking response behaviour of precast reinforced concrete columns based on results of a real building and supplemented with a study of their rocking behaviours through a series of shake-table tests.

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Reducing risks to historical buildings from ground vibrations

A research into a structure’s behaviour, subject to vibration from external sources, can reduce the costs of mining and construction, allow ground vibration magnitudes to be increased and so give incentives to constructors and miners to design ground vibrations to cause least risk to the structures. 

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A Preliminary Study on the Thermal Properties of the Ground under Sydney Harbour and the Sensitivity of Tunnel Air Temperatures

This paper presents the results and analysis of heat transfer testing. The sensitivity of tunnel air temperatures to the thermal properties of the ground is also presented.

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Tunnel Ventilation Requirements for Underground Rail Crossovers

This paper gives guidance on how the characteristics of the railway and the railway operations affect the choice of ventilation requirements for an underground crossover. It will also outline the various options available to the ventilation designer for a given set of requirements where it is not warranted by a particular railway system.

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Bending behaviour experiment of a prestressed concrete beam with metal bellows (AJSE)

In this paper, grouting compactness and load forms are taken as control conditions, and the bending behaviour of 8 PCBs (prestressed concrete beams) with metal bellows of different grouting compactness is experimentally examined.

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Combined effect of rolling contact fatigue and corrosion on structural performance of rails (AJSE)

The current case study of rail assessment in Melbourne, Australia, presents a numerical procedure to investigate crack initiation under combined effect of fatigue and corrosion. A 3D finite element model which accounts for rolling contact stresses due to wheel-rail contact loads is developed. Then, stress distribution is used in a MATLAB code to estimate the fatigue crack initiation life.

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Application of horizontal series filtration in greywater treatment: a semi-industrial study (AJWR) 

The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a horizontal series filter (HSF) consists of sand, zeolite (Z), pumice (P), and granular activated carbon (GAC) to analyse the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and pH in greywater samples. 

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 The Hunter River Estuary Water Quality Model

This paper presents a detailed hydrodynamic and water quality model to simulate ecological processes in the Hunter River estuary. Following an extensive 3-year multi-disciplinary field campaign, the model was developed to assess total catchment management options. The model outcomes are linked to existing water sharing plans, pollution reduction plans and coastal reforms underway in NSW.

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Delivering Sustainable Water Infrastructure 

The UN sustainability Goals 6 (water) and 7 (energy) are inexorably linked; energy is required for water extraction and treatment and water is required for conventional energy production. Australia is on track to meet Goal 6 by 2030 but Goal 7 seems more elusive due to the country’s dependence on fossil fuels. The Australian Government’s Renewable Energy Target and state–based actions are now driving substantial investment in renewable electricity generation and renewables are likely to account for 23% of electricity generated by 2020.

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Missing in action: possible effects of water recovery on stream and river flows in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia

We use published water balance data from irrigated cropping to show that water entitlements acquired for environmental purposes through water infrastructure subsidies in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia, have resulted in smaller increases in net stream and river flows than is estimated by the Australian Government, and may even have reduced net stream and river flows.

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Australian dams and reservoirs within a global setting

There has been a resurgence of interest in the construction of large dams worldwide. This study examined many dams from around the world (>10,000) and compared them to a comprehensive dataset developed for Australia (224) to provide insights that might otherwise not be apparent from examining just one or several dams.

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Seawalls on Atolls: Lessons for Us All 

This paper reviews the natural defences of atoll cays, the vulnerabilities of the inhabitants and their assets, and examines the various forms of seawall defence and their strengths and weaknesses. In the context of the large aid budget expected to be expended in the next 20 years, the potential economies to be found in developing appropriate specifications for the use and control of locally available materials in appropriately durable constructions, at least for minor works, may greatly reduce that budget and aid in building capability.

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An Evaluation of Current and Emerging In-situ Ocean Wave Monitoring Technology

Historically, the offshore ocean wave-monitoring field has been dominated by surface following wave buoys utilising accelerometers. However, recent advancements in technology have introduced alternate global positioning system (GPS) sensors. To monitor wave conditions effectively, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of available wave monitoring devices.

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Restoring cultural plant communities at sacred water sites (AJWR)

Water places have been critical to central Australian Indigenous peoples for thousands of years. However, many waterhole communities have been degraded by factors including invasion by large feral herbivores and non-native plants. Traditional Owners identified excellent opportunities to achieve restoration through educating young people, with a focus on sharing intergenerational knowledge and engaging local Indigenous rangers in management, enabling them to meet the traditional obligations to care for country.

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Potential cumulative impacts on river flow volume from increased groundwater extraction under the Murray-Darling Basin Plan (AJWR)

A risk assessment of the reduction of streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) from potential increased groundwater extraction has been conducted. This incorporates the uncertainty of future extraction and connectivity between groundwater and surface water.

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EA Technical Journals

*members can access all the EA technical journal papers via the IRC page in the Portal.