Engineering Trends

Delivering first-class information, our exclusive journals and conference papers highlight the cutting-edge developments in engineering research and development. Supplied by leading practitioners across a range of disciplines, these papers address the key advancements, explorations, and challenges faced by the profession.

Covering a range of topics and disciplines, the highlighted papers will provide great benefit and value for the profession.

Gold Open Access Papers

Conference Papers

With a view to understand the structural responses of concrete pedestals, a three-dimensional nonlinear explicit finite element modelling method has been developed and reported in this paper.

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In this paper, grouting compactness and load forms are taken as control conditions, and the bending behaviour of 8 PCBs (prestressed concrete beams) with metal bellows of different grouting compactness is experimentally examined.

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This study develops a CFD model for a single So-St segment; the first of its kind. The design is investigated in terms of boiling flow, multi-phase evolution, fluid regimes, heat transfer, reaction kinetics and thermodynamics.

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This paper sets out to understand how students’ interactions in the laboratory contribute to the attainment of laboratory-learning outcomes. The investigation was conducted in the traditional face-to-face laboratory mode.

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Comprehensive design standards ensure new Odour Control Units meet all necessary safety, operational and maintenance requirements, and ensure consistency, while still enabling innovation.

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This study features the rocking response behaviour of precast reinforced concrete columns based on results of a real building and supplemented with a study of their rocking behaviours through a series of shake-table tests.

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The paper reviews the key advantages of object-oriented techniques as applied to infrastructure projects, such as abstraction, inheritance, encapsulation and model reuse.

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The purpose of this paper is to explore a system for benchmarking a group of aspects relevant to complex projects, pursued both as systems engineering and construction projects, relevant to engineering business.

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The purpose of the paper is to identify a group of systems and parameters relevant to the management of both complex construction projects and systems engineering projects, recognising scenario planning, fractals, megaprojects, double loop learning, soft-systems methodology, and other factors illustrating the use of these complex system parameters.

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A research into a structure’s behaviour, subject to vibration from external sources, can reduce the costs of mining and construction, allow ground vibration magnitudes to be increased and so give incentives to constructors and miners to design ground vibrations to cause least risk to the structures. 

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Water turbine technology was still relatively young when it was first introduced to the predominantly dry continent of Australia. This paper outlines the technology up until its introduction at Woods Point and discusses the early history of that goldfield and initial choices of power technology.

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This paper presents the results and analysis of heat transfer testing. The sensitivity of tunnel air temperatures to the thermal properties of the ground is also presented.

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The lighthouse, completed in 1896, was a particularly important link in the development of coastal lights that eventually circled mainland Australia. This paper outlines several technical innovations needed to achieve this at the time.

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This paper gives guidance on how the characteristics of the railway and the railway operations affect the choice of ventilation requirements for an underground crossover. It will also outline the various options available to the ventilation designer for a given set of requirements where it is not warranted by a particular railway system.

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This paper provides a broad approach to the heritage of the River Murray works, covering the remarkable set of maps and field books, the photographic record held by SA Water, the construction villages, and some surviving physical items relating to the construction phase.

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This paper considers the current emphasis on Assurance and Accreditation (A and A) representing a significant philosophical change from standards-driven outcomes, to outcomes reflecting the values and trusts contained within regulatory frameworks. It uses this to examine the different characteristics Cyber T and E operators are likely to be defined by, and sometimes termed.

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Safeswim provides real-time predictions and forecasts of water quality, and up-to-the-minute advice on swimming conditions at over 100 sites around the Auckland region.

This paper focuses on public health risk from contact with recreational waters, and how Safeswim was developed to manage this risk, based on the current New Zealand national guidelines for contact recreation.

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Welcome to a world where smart railways are here and now. Real-time monitoring, embedded sensors, driverless trains, automated signalling and train control, Internet of Things (IoT), instant travel disruption alerts, and more. Operators not only need to continue to focus on operating railways, but now must monitor and protect all this connected infrastructure from a cyber-attack. The more connections, the more cyber threat attack vectors, the more potential for exploitable vulnerabilities, the more risk of a cyber-attack occurring.

The aim of this paper is to shallow dive into information and cyber security for rail networks and operations, providing advice into protecting a rail network's infrastructure from cyber security threats, to the same high level expected by all involved.

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This paper discusses the existence of noise observed in measurements taken using a stress wave force balance for magnetohydrodynamic drag measurements in an ionised argon expansion tube test flow.

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Multifunctional composites that combine high load-bearing properties with high electrical energy storage capacity have potential application in next-generation hybrid and electric vehicles. The effect of high structural bending loads on the flexural properties and electrical energy storage capacity of sandwich composites containing lithium-ion polymer (LiPo) batteries embedded within the polymer foam core is explored in this paper.

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Infragravity (IG) waves may cause dangerous ranging of moored ships having resonant natural frequencies of oscillation, which can be exacerbated in harbour basins having resonant IG length scales. This paper presents a methodology for and the results from developing, theoretically and empirically, an IG wave climate for the NSW coast based on field data.

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Research on belt conveyors in Australia is reviewed in an historical context and discusses some of the early technical milestones that advanced the conveying and bulk handling industry.

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This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of a bespoke or open architecture and highlights the impact of each approach on mission-critical platforms. The resulting recommendations focus on using a project’s projected lifecycle to indicate the most suited architecture and therefore leverage the relative benefits of each methodology.

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Serial hybrid-electric propulsion systems combine the advantages of combustion engines and electric motors. In this paper, the key technology parameters of general aviation aircraft with such powertrains are analysed concerning their influence on maximum take-off mass and primary energy consumption.

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The width and depth of a navigational channel are critical to ensure navigational safety. This paper presents a variable channel design approach, whereby the channel dimensions are assessed at several locations along the channel length/transit and at several intervals in a tidal cycle. This approach allows for the channel dimensions to be optimized, reducing the dredging volume, cost and environmental impact.

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What is the biggest industrial activity on the planet that can quickly and efficiently destroy material value, careers, projects and even organisations?

Answer. Bulk Solids Handling (BSH)

Material flow through a chain governs its commercial success and given over 70% of everything we use or consume passed through a bulk phase at some point in its lifecycle, bulk solids flow is very relevant.

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The consideration for human comfort in the urban plane has largely been focused on the wind speed that a pedestrian might experience due to the surrounding built form design, prevailing winds and site exposure. However, human comfort is not only affected by the experienced wind force, but also temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, clothing and other parameters.

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This paper presents a detailed hydrodynamic and water quality model to simulate ecological processes in the Hunter River estuary. Following an extensive 3-year multi-disciplinary field campaign, the model was developed to assess total catchment management options. The model outcomes are linked to existing water sharing plans, pollution reduction plans and coastal reforms underway in NSW.

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Neutron scattering techniques have provided a window into the structure and mechanics of solid materials for many decades. This study has demonstrated that these techniques can also provide tremendous insight into granular systems by means of crystallographic texture measurement and the use of neutron diffraction strain measurement techniques.

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Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas generated in wastewater networks presents a complex management issue worldwide. Corrosion of concrete and metallic sewer assets result in expensive rehabilitation cost, while customer odour complaints and worker health and safety are also major issues. This research aims to reduce concrete corrosion by minimising the generation and release of H2S with smarter network operation and design.

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The aim of this paper is to present an Engineers perspective of the implementation of Education methods, the Author was involved in, including Student project work, educational videos and STEM Student presentations, whilst examining qualitative changes in student perceptions of working with Aboriginal Australians.

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Professional people will need to be trained in fundamental calculations and principles in new ways to manage risks in their professions going forward. These people will need to use their depth of skills, in conjunction with likely new findings of AI to achieve new performance measures previously unattainable. Professional training in the development and separately in the operation of AI are whole new areas of risk management measure.

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Contemporary research indicates increasing rapid and significant changes impacting sociotechnical work systems will require different approaches to effectively manage risks. Future research activities, research contexts and research personnel may be quite different from past and current practices. How people interact with technology and their work environments will change rapidly and it will be essential to have risk management approaches that can effectively adapt to address future risks.

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The UN sustainability Goals 6 (water) and 7 (energy) are inexorably linked; energy is required for water extraction and treatment and water is required for conventional energy production. Australia is on track to meet Goal 6 by 2030 but Goal 7 seems more elusive due to the country’s dependence on fossil fuels. The Australian Government’s Renewable Energy Target and state–based actions are now driving substantial investment in renewable electricity generation and renewables are likely to account for 23% of electricity generated by 2020.

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This paper reviews the natural defences of atoll cays, the vulnerabilities of the inhabitants and their assets, and examines the various forms of seawall defence and their strengths and weaknesses. In the context of the large aid budget expected to be expended in the next 20 years, the potential economies to be found in developing appropriate specifications for the use and control of locally available materials in appropriately durable constructions, at least for minor works, may greatly reduce that budget and aid in building capability.

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Historically, the offshore ocean wave-monitoring field has been dominated by surface following wave buoys utilising accelerometers. However, recent advancements in technology have introduced alternate global positioning system (GPS) sensors. To monitor wave conditions effectively, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of available wave monitoring devices.

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Additional Resources 

*members can access all the EA technical journal papers via the IRC page in the Portal.